Study of the Old Testament word lwaS






            The Hebrew word lwaS (sheol) is an important word when considering Old Testament theology concerning what happens to a person after death. There is certainly much confusion surrounding this word in our world today, and also misconceptions dating back to the very early days of the church. For this reason we find it necessary to search the scriptures, looking to the Holy Spirit for His guidance and wisdom as we study this word.


 Root Meaning


            It is helpful when studying a Hebrew word to search for the root and its meaning as a first step. While this may not always prove helpful, it can often give insight into the meaning of the word under consideration, as well as to the way of thinking for the Hebrew mind.

            Gesenius says: “I have no doubt that lwaS is for lweS a hollow, a hollow and subterranean place.” Davidson seems to agree, “the Root laS may be in signification i.q. leS to be hollow.” Later we will see that such an etymology may be helpful background for understanding the Hebrew concept of the word sheol.




            The word lwaS occurs only 65 times in the Old Testament. But this does not mean that the meaning of the word is without question. It seems that our Hebrew lexicons have little agreement when it comes to offering an English translation for the word lwaS. For example:

Davidson: grave; the abode of the departed souls.

Gesenius: orcus, hades, a subterranean place, full of thick darkness (Job 10:21,22), in which the shades of the dead are gathered together and to which are attributed both valleys (Pro. 9:18) and gates (Isa. 38:10).

Harris: sheol, grave, hell, pit.

Holladay: Sheol, underworld, abode of the dead

            While there is little agreement regarding possible translations for lwaS, all the lexicons would agree that the word is describing where a person goes at death. Notice that there are two separate possibilities offered by the lexicons:

✔ The first deals with our bodies - the grave (physical).

✔ The second deals with our souls - hades, hell, and the abode of the departed souls (spiritual).

            It will be important to keep these two different possibilities in mind as we take a look at individual passages later on. For now, let’s look at these two possibilities more in depth.

            Option #1 (the grave): One might think of our custom today in connection with those who have died. Typically we dig a hole in the ground, and place the lifeless body there, and then cover it with dirt. Similar customs of burial after death go back to ancient times. We have evidence of burials already in the book of Genesis, when Abraham bought the Cave of Machpelah as a place to bury his wife Sarah. Abraham sought to buy a burial place, saying to the sons of Heth, “I am a foreigner and a visitor among you. Give me property for a burial place among you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight” (Genesis 23:4). This idea of placing the dead into the ground continues throughout the Old and New Testaments, and is also evidenced in secular history (e.g. think of the ancient burial practices of the Egyptians). Notice that this first understanding, the grave, is closely connected to the Root meaning of the word mentioned previously, a hollow and subterranean place. This is the simplest understanding of the word.

            Option #2 (hades, hell, and the abode of the departed souls): This translation is used to refer to the place of punishment for the wicked. While there are several words in the New Testament which are used to refer to this place of punishment (adhv, geenna, and tartarow), lwaS is the only one in the Old Testament.




            These separate distinctions are also brought out in the majority of our English translations. That there is some difference of opinion regarding the meaning of the word lwaS becomes evident when one looks at how the word is translated in our English translations. As we look at just a few of our English translations, we find at least six different words used to translate lwaS.









KJV (1769)







Douay (1899)







ASV (1901)







RSV (1952)







NIV (1978)







NKJV (1982)








            As we look at our translations, we see opposite perspectives. There are those which prefer to transliterate the word and allow the reader to decide for himself what the word is describing, and there are those who translate the word in various ways, making that decision for the reader based on the context.

            Here are a couple of side notes regarding other translations not listed above:

Luther: It was also interesting to look at how Luther translated the word lwaS into the German. Luther translated it Hölle (hell) forty five times; Grube (pit) seven times; Tod (death) seven times; Grab (grave) three times; and Toten (dead) three times.

Septuagint: The LXX translated lwaS into the Greek very consistently using the word adhv. There are only two exceptions where the translators used yanatou instead.




            The word lwaS is often used in a general way to describe a place where both believers and unbelievers go at death.


          It is used twice in the book of Numbers to refer to the death of Korah, Dathan and Abiram and their followers, who had rebelled against the LORD and His servant Moses: “But if the LORD creates a new thing, and the earth opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into the pit (lwaS), then you will understand that these men have rejected the LORD” (Numbers 16:30).

          It is used by David on his death bed of the destination of Joab; “Therefore do according to your wisdom, and do not let his gray hair go down to the grave (lwaS) in peace” (1 Kings 2:6) and later of Shimei: “Now therefore, do not hold him guiltless, for you are a wise man and know what you ought to do to him; but bring his gray hair down to the grave (lwaS) with blood” (1 Kings 2:9).

          It is used by Solomon to describe the outcome of the adulteress: “Her feet go down to death, Her steps lay hold of hell (lwaS) (Proverbs 5:5) and, “Her house is the way to hell (lwaS), Descending to the chambers of death” (Proverbs 7:27).

          It is used by Job to describe the destination of the wicked: “They [the wicked - v.7] spend their days in wealth, And in a moment go down to the grave (lwaS) (Job 21:13).


          It is used four times in Genesis as Jacob refers to his own death after the loss of his son Joseph (Genesis 37:35) and the thought of losing his son Benjamin (Genesis 42:38; 44:29; 44:31): “But he said, ‘My son shall not go down with you, for his brother is dead, and he is left alone. If any calamity should befall him along the way in which you go, then you would bring down my gray hair with sorrow to the grave (lwaS)’” (Genesis 42:38).

          After the LORD delivered David from Saul and other enemies, David wrote: “The sorrows of Sheol (lwaS) surrounded me” (Psalm 18:5) and “O LORD, You brought my soul up from the grave (lwaS); You have kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit” (Psalm 30:3).

          It is also used by King Hezekiah in a prayer of praise after the LORD granted him recovery from his sickness: “In the prime of my life I shall go to the gates of Sheol (lwaS); I am deprived of the remainder of my years” (Isaiah 38:10).

          In the book of Ecclesiastes, Solomon makes a very general statement to all people (but especially believers) that lwaS is the place where all people go: “Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work or device or knowledge or wisdom in the grave (lwaS) where you are going” (Ecclesiastes 9:10).

            From these last passages we realize that the word lwaS cannot be translated “hell” in every occurrence, otherwise we would be saying that some Old Testament believers - even all people - end up in hell. The fact that lwaS is used to describe a place to which both believers and unbelievers go has led to some very confusing theories and deductions.

            One of those theories is that lwaS is basically a holding cell into which the souls of all people, believers and unbelievers alike, go at death. lwaS is then said to have two compartments: an upper compartment called Paradise where the souls of believers are held, and a lower compartment of torment where the souls of unbelievers go. Added to this is the thought that at His death Jesus entered this holding cell of souls and at His resurrection He released those Old Testament believers who were held in the upper chamber and took them with Himself to heaven. Footnote This theory is quite common in our day and is even described in many familiar Bible Dictionaries. For example:

“The clearest indication of different conditions in Sheol is in Christ’s parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Lu 16:19-31).” Footnote

“The Hebrew people regarded Sheol as a place to which both the righteous and unrighteous go at death (Gen. 37:35; Ps. 9:17; Is. 38:10), a place where punishment is received and rewards are enjoyed.” Footnote

            Both of the above comments imply that different conditions can be found in lwaS – both punishment and reward. This concept is derived from Jesus’ words in Luke 16, and then is applied to the Old Testament word lwaS. Yet as we study this Hebrew word, we see that the Old Testament never points to a positive side of lwaS. Here are some examples:

          lwaS is used in connection with...

                      mourning - “And all his sons and all his daughters arose to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted, and he said, "For I shall go down into the grave (lwaS) to my son in mourning." Thus his father wept for him” (Genesis 37:35);

                      punishment of those who rejected the LORD - “But if the LORD creates a new thing, and the earth opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into the pit (lwaS), then you will understand that these men have rejected the LORD....So they and all those with them went down alive into the pit (lwaS); the earth closed over them, and they perished from among the assembly” (Numbers 16:30,33);

                      God’s anger - “For a fire is kindled by my anger, And shall burn to the lowest hell (lwaS); It shall consume the earth with her increase, And set on fire the foundations of the mountains” (Deuteronomy 32:22);

                      killing - “The LORD kills and makes alive; He brings down to the grave (lwaS) and brings up” (1 Samuel 2:6);

                      sorrow - “The sorrows of Sheol (lwaS) surrounded me; The snares of death confronted me” (2 Samuel 22:6);

                      blood - “Now therefore, do not hold him guiltless, for you are a wise man and know what you ought to do to him; but bring his gray hair down to the grave (lwaS) with blood” (1 Kings 2:9);

                      darkness - “If I wait for the grave (lwaS) as my house, If I make my bed in the darkness” (Job 17:13);

                      troubles - “For my soul is full of troubles, And my life draws near to the grave (lwaS) (Psalm 88:3);

                      the uncircumcised - “The strong among the mighty Shall speak to him out of the midst of hell (lwaS) With those who help him: ‘They have gone down, They lie with the uncircumcised, slain by the sword.... They do not lie with the mighty Who are fallen of the uncircumcised, Who have gone down to hell (lwaS) with their weapons of war; They have laid their swords under their heads, But their iniquities will be on their bones, Because of the terror of the mighty in the land of the living” (Ezekiel 32:21, 27);

                      affliction - “And he said: ‘I cried out to the LORD because of my affliction, And He answered me. Out of the belly of Sheol (lwaS) I cried, And You heard my voice” (Jonah 2:2);

                      transgression - “Indeed, because he transgresses by wine, He is a proud man, And he does not stay at home. Because he enlarges his desire as hell (lwaS), And he is like death, and cannot be satisfied, He gathers to himself all nations And heaps up for himself all peoples” (Habakkuk 2:5);

            These verses all point to a very sad and depressing picture of lwaS. In addition, it is also helpful if we look at passages where lwaS is commonly used with another Hebrew word, and where a parallel is made.

            lwaS is used... a parallel to death (twm):

                      “The sorrows of Sheol (lwaS) surrounded me; The snares of death confronted me” (Psalm 18:5).

                      “What man can live and not see death? Can he deliver his life from the power of the grave (lwaS)? Selah” (Psalm 89:48).

                      “The pains of death surrounded me, And the pangs of Sheol (lwaS) laid hold of me; I found trouble and sorrow” (Psalm 116:3).

                      “Her feet go down to death, Her steps lay hold of hell (lwaS) (Proverbs 5:5).

                      “Because you have said, ‘We have made a covenant with death, And with Sheol (lwaS) we are in agreement. When the overflowing scourge passes through, It will not come to us, For we have made lies our refuge, And under falsehood we have hidden ourselves’” (Isaiah 28:15). Footnote

   a parallel to destruction (Ndba):

          “Sheol (lwaS) is naked before Him, And Destruction has no covering” (Job 26:6).

          “Hell (lwaS) and Destruction are before the LORD; So how much more the hearts of the sons of men” (Proverbs 15:11).

          “Hell (lwaS) and Destruction are never full; So the eyes of man are never satisfied” (Proverbs 27:20).

            These parallels again emphasize that the use of lwaS denotes punishment. When we look at its usage in the Old Testament we see that the word lwaS is only used in a negative sense, even when it is used of believers! If we look again at the passages above which speak of believers, we see that even for believers lwaS is associated with “mourning” (Genesis 37:35); “sorrow” (Genesis 42:38; 44:29,31; Psalm 18:5); with depravation of years (Isaiah 38:10); and loss of knowledge and wisdom (Ecclesiastes 9:10).

            It should be noted that there are a few times when lwaS is used in a “neutral” sense. By that we mean that it is used in neither a positive or a negative sense. In these passages we see the Holy Writers using lwaS as a contrast to Mymv:

          “Can you search out the deep things of God? Can you find out the limits of the Almighty? They are higher than heaven—what can you do? Deeper than Sheol (lwaS) —what can you know? Their measure is longer than the earth And broader than the sea” (Job 11:7-9).

          “Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into heaven, You are there; If I make my bed in hell (lwaS), behold, You are there. If I take the wings of the morning, And dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, Even there Your hand shall lead me, And Your right hand shall hold me” (Psalm 139:7-11).

          “I saw the Lord standing by the altar, and He said: ‘Strike the doorposts, that the thresholds may shake, And break them on the heads of them all. I will slay the last of them with the sword. He who flees from them shall not get away, And he who escapes from them shall not be delivered. Though they dig into hell (lwaS), From there my hand shall take them; Though they climb up to heaven, From there I will bring them down; And though they hide themselves on top of Carmel, From there I will search and take them; Though they hide from My sight at the bottom of the sea, From there I will command the serpent, and it shall bite them’” (Amos 9:1-2).

            Notice these verses describe extreme opposites: height to depth, length to width; there is no place that we can go to hide from God. These verses speak of God’s omnipresence. Both Adam and Jonah tried to hide from the LORD, and yet they soon realized that there was no place they could go where God would not be.

            While lwaS is at times used in a neutral sense, never do we find it used with a reference to rewards being received, or to refer to a positive condition. lwaS is used almost exclusively with a negative connotation. Thus the Old Testament word lwaS does not describe a holding cell of souls that has a pleasant chamber for believers and an unpleasant one for unbelievers! What’s more, this idea is found nowhere in Scripture, but is derived from pagan thought and is credited to Scripture based on only one section in Scripture (Luke 16:19-31), and a section which is full of metaphors. Footnote

            Scripture speaks of only two places where the souls of human beings go at death: “heaven” or “hell.” Jesus said, “Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world” and “Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matthew 25:34, 41). We should rather place this story of our Lord into the simple context of Scripture and understand the abode of the rich man as “hell” and the abode of Lazarus as “heaven.” Lenski says, “All speculation which claims the discovery of a third or intermediate abode treads the outworn paths of Romanism and merely modifies the Catholic views.” Footnote

            Why is lwaS used only in a negative sense, even when being used of believers? That question is answered if we think back to Genesis 3. God had told Adam “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die” (Genesis 2:16-17). After the fall into sin, God told Adam that as a result of his sin, that would most certainly be the case, “In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread Till you return to the ground, For out of it you were taken; For dust you are, And to dust you shall return” (Genesis 3:19). Although mankind was created by God to live forever, sin ruined that, and death was the result.

            At death, a separation takes place between the body and the soul as Solomon tells us in Ecclesiastes 12:7 “Then the dust will return to the earth as it was, And the spirit will return to God who gave it.” At death our bodies are laid in the ground to await our Lord’s return on Judgement Day. In the Old Testament lwaS is usually used to describe what happens to the body at death – describing simply that our bodies are placed in the grave.

             lwaS is used specifically as a hole in the earth:

          “So they and all those with them went down alive into the pit (lwaS); the earth closed over them, and they perished from among the assembly” (Numbers 16:33).

The context of many passages indicate that lwaS must be referring to the grave:

          In her prayer of thanksgiving to the LORD after the birth of Samuel, Hannah says, “The LORD kills and makes alive; He brings down to the grave (lwaS) and brings up. The LORD makes poor and makes rich; He brings low and lifts up” (1 Samuel 2:6).

In this verse Hannah is simply confessing that the LORD holds the power of life (birth) and death in His hands.

          In despair Job says, “As the cloud disappears and vanishes away, So he who goes down to the grave (lwaS) does not come up. He shall never return to his house, Nor shall his place know him anymore” (Job 7:9-10).

The context from the verses surrounding this passage make it clear that Job is speaking of physical death and not the punishment of hell.

          “If I wait for the grave as my house, If I make my bed in the darkness, If I say to corruption, ‘You are my father,’ And to the worm, ‘You are my mother and my sister,’ Where then is my hope? As for my hope, who can see it? Will they go down to the gates of Sheol (lwaS)? Shall we have rest together in the dust?” (Job 17:13-16).

Notice the words Job uses in these verses: “corruption,” “worm” and “dust.” Once again Job is describing the end result of the body buried in the dirt.

          “Our bones are scattered at the mouth of the grave (lwaS), As when one plows and breaks up the earth” (Psalm 141:7).

          In Ezekiel 31 and 32, there is a lengthy description of the fall of Egypt along with several other nations. Its fall is described by using several similar Hebrew words repeatedly. These nations are said to go down to lwaS, to the grave (rbq), to the pit (rwb), and to the depths of the earth (ytxt Ura). “Thus says the Lord GOD: ‘In the day when it went down to hell (lwaS), I caused mourning. I covered the deep because of it. I restrained its rivers, and the great waters were held back. I caused Lebanon to mourn for it, and all the trees of the field wilted because of it. I made the nations shake at the sound of its fall, when I cast it down to hell (lwaS) together with those who descend into the Pit (rwb); and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the depths of the earth (ytxt Ura). They also went down to hell (lwaS) with it, with those slain by the sword; and those who were its strong arm dwelt in its shadows among the nations’” (Ezekiel 31:15-17). The use of these four different terms all point to the idea of “grave” for lwaS.

          The same is also true in Psalm 88: “For my soul is full of troubles, And my life draws near to the grave (lwaS). I am counted with those who go down to the pit (rwb); I am like a man who has no strength, Adrift among the dead, Like the slain who lie in the grave (rbq), Whom You remember no more, And who are cut off from Your hand. You have laid me in the lowest pit (ytxt rwb), In darkness, in the depths” (Psalm 88:3-6). The context again points to the grave.

            This is the basic understanding of the word lwaS in the Old Testament – simply describing the physical death of human beings, and the fact that we will return to the dust of the earth. There are some passages where lwaS may be found with a more severe meaning, possibly dealing with the eternal punishment of souls in hell.

Passages using lwaS which may point to the punishment of hell:

          “For a fire is kindled by my anger, And shall burn to the lowest hell (lwaS); It shall consume the earth with her increase, And set on fire the foundations of the mountains” (Deuteronomy 32:22).

          “The way of life winds upward for the wise, That he may turn away from hell (lwaS) below” (Proverbs 15:24).

            While there are many lwaS passages which could refer to punishment in hell, it is very difficult to find passages where the context dictates that it must refer to hell. For there are many passages where lwaS is used...

   connection with the sin of idolatry:

          “You went to the king with ointment, And increased your perfumes; You sent your messengers far off, And even descended to Sheol (lwaS) (Isaiah 57:9).

   connection with the sin of adultery:

          “But he does not know that the dead are there, That her guests are in the depths of hell (lwaS) (Proverbs 9:18).

            ... as the punishment of the wicked:

          “The wicked shall be turned into hell (lwaS), And all the nations that forget God” (Psalms 9:17).

          “Let death seize them; Let them go down alive into hell (lwaS), For wickedness is in their dwellings and among them” (Psalms 55:15).

            While these and other passages could be referring to hell, the context is often not specific enough to be sure that hell is being described. While the word lwaS may not give us much proof of the existence of hell, that certainly does not mean that Old Testament believers were unaware of the existence of hell. Isaiah even declares the eternal nature of punishment in hell: “And they shall go forth and look Upon the corpses of the men Who have transgressed against Me. For their worm does not die, And their fire is not quenched. They shall be an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isaiah 66:24).

            Without the message of the Gospel, the idea of death would be one of horror. Because of our human flesh, even Christians at times think of death with very unpleasant thoughts. But the Old Testament also carries the Gospel message to believers of deliverance from lwaS:➥          “For You will not leave my soul in Sheol (lwaS), Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption” (Psalm 16:10).

          “But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave (lwaS), For He shall receive me. Selah” (Psalm 49:15).

          “For great is Your mercy toward me, And You have delivered my soul from the depths of Sheol (lwaS) (Psalm 86:13).

          “You shall beat him with a rod, And deliver his soul from hell (lwaS)(Proverbs 23:14).

          “I will ransom them from the power of the grave (lwaS); I will redeem them from death. O Death, I will be your plagues! O Grave (lwaS), I will be your destruction! Pity is hidden from My eyes” (Hosea 13:14).

            As we look at these passages we may again ask if lwaS here refers to the grave or to hell. In this case it is helpful to look at the New Testament passages which quote two of these verses. Psalm 16:10 is quoted by Peter in his Pentecost sermon (Acts 2:25-32) referring to the bodily resurrection of Jesus from the dead. This indicates that it is the grave which is being referred to. Also, Hosea 13:14 is quoted by Paul in the great resurrection chapter of 1 Corinthians where Paul is speaking about the resurrection of believers, emphasizing our victory over death and the grave and not over hell. The other three passages are very similar in content. Like Psalm 16:10 they are all used with the Hebrew word vpn, and they all refer to deliverance (lun) or redemption (hdp). Ususally we connect the word “soul” with the concept of hell. But if we remember that vpn can mean life Footnote , and apply that understanding to our verses here, it would be easy to see that these other passages as well are speaking of our deliverance from the grave.




            As we take an in depth look at the word lwaS we realize that it does not refer to some holding cell with separate compartments for believers and unbelievers. Not once does the word lwaS point to a state of happiness and blessings. Rather the word may at times be used to refer to the punishment of the wicked in hell, but generally is used simply to refer to the state of the body in death, as a reminder of the result of our sin. The apostle Paul writes,

“Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned—— (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man’s offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many. And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation, but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification. For if by the one man’s offense death reigned through the one, much more those who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.) Therefore, as through one man’s offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man’s righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life. For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous. Moreover the law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more, so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Romans 5:12-21).

            Surely, God has not left us to die, but He has redeemed us from the power of lwaS, through the death of His Son Jesus, and by His resurrection from the dead, He has assured us that we too will be brought from death to life! Even so, come, Lord Jesus!



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Gesenius, William. Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. Trans. Samuel Tregelles. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI; 1949.

Harris, R. Laird. Theological Wordbook of the O.T. Moody Press, Chicago, IL; 1980.

Holladay, William. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the O.T. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI; 1988.

Laetsch, Theo. Bible Commentary - The Minor Prophets. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, MO; 1956.

Lenski, R.C.H. The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel. Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, MN; 1946.

Leupold, H.C. Exposition of Genesis. Volume 2. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI; 1942.

Leupold, H.C. Exposition of The Psalms. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI; 1972.

Lockyer, Herbert Sr., ed. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN; 1986.

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Mueller, John Theodore. Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, MO; 1955.

Nave, Orville J. The Nave’s Topical Bible. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI; 1969.

Smith, William. Smith’s Bible Dictionary. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, NJ; 1979.Wilson, William. Wilson’s O.T. Word Studies. Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MS.

Wolbrecht, W.F.. “The Doctrine of the Last Things.” The Abiding Word. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, MO; 1946.


* All passages quoted are from the NKJV unless otherwise noted.




Soli Deo Gloria



Pastor Nathanael Mayhew
Presented to the Southeastern Pastoral Conference of the Church of the Lutheran Confession
October 5-7, 2004

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